Can you scan analogue photos to a format that is an equivalent of a Camera RAW file? Yes, you can, with SilverFast.
Here’s a video that shows you what it looks like. The resulting RAW file, the HDR image, is twice as big as the regular 48-bit image.
Note that the RAW image is darker than a regular file. That is due to the file being a real digital RAW file, with no adjustments possible at all. The video explains it.